Iraq’s Sectarian Electoral System

Election worker empties ballots from a box during the 2009 provincial elections in Basra.

Election worker empties ballots from a box during the 2009 provincial elections in Basra. (Photo: New York Times)

The political scientist Maurice Duverger, in his classic work Political Parties, claimed that party systems and electoral systems in a democracy are “indissolubly linked” and “difficult to separate.” Together, these two systems determine the accuracy of political representation within a state. I have spent the last year studying political parties in Iraq and it is clear that the party system in Iraq created sectarian political representation. Therefore, according to Duverger’s statement, the electoral system in Iraq must also, in some way, contribute to that sectarian representation. In order to understand this relationship, it is useful to look back at the evolution of Iraq’s electoral system.

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